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PEDESTRIAN RELEVANT SECTIONS OF
 THE UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

Advocates for improved pedestrian safety legislation can increase their effectiveness by understanding the Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance (UVCMTO) or UVC for short.

The UVC is published by the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances (NCUTLO).   Members includes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Federal Highway Administration.  In addition 40 out of 50 States have adopted substantial portions of the UVC.  Beside motor vehicles the UVC also contains language that relates to pedestrian safety.  NCUTLO voting membership consists of a broad spectrum of traffic safety experts meaning the UVC is well vetted.  Urging a State to adopt the latest wording of the UVC is significantly easier then trying to lobby for new wording that has not been vetted.   

Below are UVC sections of interest to pedestrian safety advocates. 

 

Partial List of Pedestrian relevant section of the UVC  

UVC 1-156 [ 1-168, 2000 version number] Pedestrian
UVC 11- 202(a),(b),(c)1,(c)2,(c)4 Traffic-control signal legend
UVC 11- 202(c)3 Traffic-control signal legend [Right turn on red] 
UVC 11- 203 Pedestrian-control signals
UVC 11- 403(b) Stop signs and yield signs [Driver procedures at stop signs]
UVC 11- 403(c) Stop signs and yield signs [Driver procedures at yield signs] 
UVC 11- 501(a) Pedestrian obedience to traffic-control devices and traffic regulations
UVC 11- 502(a) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Yield to pedestrian in crosswalk]
UVC 11- 502(b) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Pedestrian can't suddenly leave curb]
UVC 11- 502(c) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks 
UVC 11- 502(d) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Vehicle from rear does not pass stopped vehicle]
UVC 11- 503(a) Crossing at other than crosswalks 
UVC 11- 503(b) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Tunnel or bridge available]
UVC 11- 503(c) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Crossing between adjacent intersections]
UVC 11- 503(d) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Diagonal crossing] 
UVC 11- 504 Drivers to exercise due care
UVC 11- 505 Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks
UVC 11- 506(c) Pedestrians on highways [No sidewalk or shoulder available]
UVC 11- 506(d) Pedestrians on highways [Pedestrian in roadway]
UVC 11- 509 Pedestrians' right of way on sidewalks
UVC 11-1103 Driving upon sidewalk
UVC 11-1210(c) [ 11-1209(c), 2000 version number] Bicycles and human powered vehicles on sidewalks [Bicyclist has rights/duties of pedestrian] 
UVC 15-102(a)19 Powers of local authorities [Pedestrian crossings]
UVC 15-102(a)21 Powers of local authorities [Toy vehicles]
UVC 15-108 Authority to close unmarked crosswalks

Model 7. Model law to remove visual obstructions 
1. Duty to remove visual obstructions 
2. Inspection for visual obstructions


Pedestrian Relevant Sections of the Code of Virginia

46.2-904. Operation of bicycles on sidewalks and crosswalks 
46.2-923. How and where pedestrians cross highways.
46.2-924. Right-of-way of pedestrians; installation of certain signs; penalty.

UVC 1-168 Pedestrian   

Any person afoot.


UVC 11- 202(a),(b),(c)1,(c)2,(c)4 Traffic-control signal legend

Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors Green, Red and Yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:

(a) Green indication

1. Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn. But vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, shall yield the right of way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited.

2. Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.73

3. Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in 11-203, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.

(b) Steady yellow indication74

1. Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal is thereby warned that the related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter.

2. Pedestrians facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in 11-203, are thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway.

(c) Steady red indication

1. Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in subsection (c)3.

2. Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal shall not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow, and unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until an indication permitting the movement indicated by such red arrow is shown except as provided in subsection (c)3.

4. Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in 11-203, pedestrians facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal alone shall not enter the roadway.

73 It is recommended that the display of a turning green arrow alone or with another indication should indicate that during this display the turning movement is not interfered with by oncoming traffic, which simultaneously should face a red signal.

74 It is recommended that the color yellow be used only before red. If yellow is used following the red, traffic facing the signal has a tendency to start before the green signal appears, causing interference with cross traffic clearing the intersection.



UVC 11- 202(c)3 Traffic-control signal legend [Right turn on red] 

(c) Steady red indication

3. Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic facing any steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way street into a one- way street, after stopping as required by subsection (c)1 or subsection (c)2. After stopping the driver shall yield the right of way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right of way to pedestrians within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk.

UVC 11- 203 Pedestrian-control signals

Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting the "Walk" or "Don't Walk" or symbols of a "walking person" or "upraised palm" are in place, such signals shall indicate as follows:
(a) Flashing or Steady Walk or Walking Person-Any pedestrian facing the signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and every driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way to such pedestrian.
(b) Flashing or Steady Don't Walk or Upraised Palm-No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has partially completed crossing on the walk signal shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the don't walk or upraised palm signal is showing.

In states where pedestrian-control signals using the "Wait" legend are still in use, authorization for them should be continued in the law until they are replaced.



UVC 11- 403(b) Stop signs and yield signs [Driver procedures at stop signs]

Except when directed to proceed by a police officer, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right of way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right of way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk.


UVC 11- 403(c) Stop signs and yield signs [Driver procedures at yield signs]

The driver of vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions, and if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right of way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right of way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk. If such a driver after driving past a yield sign is involved in a collision with a vehicle in the intersection or junction of roadways or with a pedestrian in an adjacent crosswalk, such collision shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the driver's failure to yield right of way.


UVC 11- 501(a) Pedestrian obedience to traffic-control devices and traffic regulations

A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device specifically applicable to such pedestrian, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.


UVC 11- 502(a) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Yield to pedestrian in crosswalk]

When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way, slowing down or stopping if need be to yield to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.



UVC 11- 502(b) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Pedestrian can't suddenly leave curb]

No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.



UVC 11- 502(c) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [ 11-502(a) does not apply where there is a tunnel or bridge]

Paragraph (a) shall not apply under the conditions stated in 11.503(b) [tunnel or overhead crossing exists].



UVC 11- 502(d) Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks [Vehicle from rear does not pass stopped vehicle] 

Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.

[Also see model vehicle overtaking law, particularly 3.]



UVC 11- 503(a) Crossing at other than crosswalks 

Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right of way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

Metroped Note
: Allows pedestrian to cross anywhere

UVC 11- 503(b) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Tunnel or bridge available]

Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right of way to all vehicles upon the roadway.



UVC 11- 503(c) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Crossing between adjacent intersections]
Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.



UVC 11- 503(d) Crossing at other than crosswalks [Diagonal crossing] 

No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices; and when authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining to such crossing movements

UVC 11- 504 Drivers to exercise due care

Notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter or the provisions of any local ordinance, every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian or any person propelling a human powered vehicle and shall give an audible signal when necessary, and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any obviously confused, incapacitated or intoxicated person.

UVC 11- 505 Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks

Whenever practicable, pedestrians shall move upon the right half of crosswalks

UVC 11- 506(c) Pedestrians on highways [No sidewalk or shoulder available]

Where neither a sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk as near as practicable to an outside edge of the roadway, and if on a two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the roadway.


UVC 11- 506(d) Pedestrians on highways [Pedestrian in roadway]


Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, any pedestrian upon a roadway shall yield the right of way to all vehicles upon the roadway.


UVC 11- 509 Pedestrians' right of way on sidewalks


The driver of a vehicle crossing a sidewalk shall yield the right of way to any pedestrian and all other traffic on the sidewalk.


UVC 11-1103 Driving upon sidewalk


No person shall drive any vehicle upon a sidewalk or sidewalk area except upon a permanent or duly authorized temporary driveway. This section shall not apply to any vehicle moved exclusively by human power nor to any motorized wheelchair.


UVC 11-1209(c), Bicycles and human powered vehicles on sidewalks [Bicyclist has rights/duties of pedestrian] 

A person propelling a vehicle by human power upon and along a sidewalk, or across a roadway upon and along a crosswalk, shall have all the rights and duties applicable to a pedestrian under the same circumstances.


UVC 15-102(a)19 Powers of local authorities [Pedestrian crossings]

(a) The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction, or with respect to private property when specifically authorized in this section and within the reasonable exercise of the police power from:

19. Restricting pedestrian crossings at unmarked crosswalks as authorized in 15-108.


UVC 15-102(a)21 Powers of local authorities [Toy vehicles]

(a) The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction, or with respect to private property when specifically authorized in this section and within the reasonable exercise of the police power from:

21. Regulating persons upon skates, coasters, sleds and other toy vehicles.


UVC 15-108 Authority to close unmarked crosswalks

After an engineering and traffic investigation, the (State highway commission) and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may designate unmarked crosswalk locations where pedestrian crossing is prohibited or where pedestrians must yield the right of way to vehicles. Such restrictions shall be effective only when official traffic-control devices indicating the restrictions are in place.


Model 7. Model law to remove visual obstructions 1. Duty to remove visual obstructions 2. Inspection for visual obstructions

1. Duty to remove visual obstructions

(a) It shall be the duty of the owner of real property on which any tree, plant, shrub or any moveable object unreasonably obstructs the view of any driver, pedestrian or bicyclist proceeding along a highway and thereby constitutes a potential traffic hazard to eliminate such a visual obstruction.
(b) When the (state highway commission) or any local authority determines upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that such a potential traffic hazard exists, it shall notify the owner and order that the hazard be removed within 10 days.
(c) The failure of the owner to remove such traffic hazard within 10 days of the notice required in subsection (b) above shall constitute an offense punishable by a penalty of ________ dollars and every day said owner shall fail to remove it shall be a separate and distinct offense.
(d) It shall be the duty of the (state highway commission) and the (city traffic engineer) to comply with subsection (a) above as to visual obstructions located on public property.

2. Inspection for visual obstructions
The (state highway commission) (city traffic engineer) shall inspect (quarterly) (semi- annually) (annually) the highways and bicycle paths of this (state) (county) (city) to identify obstructions which impair any road user's view of official traffic control devices or other traffic.

For more details on this model law, see the following reference:

 

Pedestrian Relevant Sections of the Code of Virginia 

!! Please see warning at end of page !!


46.2-904. Operation of bicycles on sidewalks and crosswalks

This law covers UVC 11-1210(a), (b), and (c). With regard to 11-1210(c), it uses the words "riding a bicycle on a sidewalk" in place of "propelling a vehicle by human power upon and along a sidewalk," "on a crosswalk" in place of "upon and along a crosswalk," and "duties of a pedestrian" in place of "duties applicable to a pedestrian 


Two relevant sections in the Code of Virginia.


46.2-923. How and where pedestrians cross highways.

When crossing highways, pedestrians shall not carelessly or maliciously interfere with the orderly passage of vehicles. They shall cross, wherever possible, only at intersections or marked crosswalks. Where intersections contain no marked crosswalks, pedestrians shall not be guilty of negligence as a matter of law for crossing at any such intersection or between intersections when crossing by the most direct route

The governing body of any town or city or the governing body of a county authorized by law to regulate traffic may by ordinance permit pedestrians to cross an intersection diagonally when all traffic entering the intersection has been halted by lights, other traffic control devices, or by a law-enforcement officer.

(Code 1950, 46-243; 1958, c. 541, 46.1-230; 1966, c. 706; 1976, c. 322; 1981, c. 163; 1989, c. 727.)

46.2-924. Right-of-way of pedestrians; installation of certain signs; penalty.

A. The driver of any vehicle on a highway shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian crossing such highway:

1. At any clearly marked crosswalk, whether at mid-block or at the end of any block;

2. At any regular pedestrian crossing included in the prolongation of the lateral boundary lines of the adjacent sidewalk at the end of a block;

3. At any intersection when the driver is approaching on a highway or street where the legal maximum speed does not exceed thirty-five miles per hour.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of this section, at intersections or crosswalks where the movement of traffic is being regulated by law-enforcement officers or traffic control devices, the driver shall yield according to the direction of the law-enforcement officer or device.

No pedestrian shall enter or cross an intersection in disregard of approaching traffic.

The drivers of vehicles entering, crossing, or turning at intersections shall change their course, slow down, or stop if necessary to permit pedestrians to cross such intersections safely and expeditiously.

Pedestrians crossing highways at intersections shall at all times have the right-of-way over vehicles making turns into the highways being crossed by the pedestrians.

C. The governing body of any county having the county manager plan of government, or any city with a population between 110,000 and 115,000, may by ordinance provide for the installation and maintenance of highway signs at marked crosswalks specifically requiring operators of motor vehicles, at the locations where such signs are installed, to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing or attempting to cross the highway. Any operator of a motor vehicle who fails at such locations to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians as required by such signs shall be guilty of a traffic infraction punishable by a fine of no less than $100 or more than $500. The Commonwealth Transportation Board shall develop criteria for the design, location, and installation of such signs. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any limited access highway.

(Code 1950, 46-243, 46-244; 1958, c. 541, 46.1-231; 1962, c. 471; 1968, c. 165; 1972, c. 576; 1976, c. 322; 1989, c. 727; 2000, c. 323.)

Metroped Note: 46.2-924 gives pedestrians the right-of-way in all crosswalks, whether marked or unmarked, when the posted speed is up to 35 MPH but not at any UNMARKED locations without approaching sidewalks--including intersections--where the posted speed limit is higher.  Once the crosswalk is marked, however, motorists must yield to pedestrians walking there regardless of the speed limit.


46.2-924 amended.
Failure to yield to pedestrians. Allows Fairfax County the same ability as Arlington and Alexandria to provide for enhanced penalties for motorists who fail to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians in specially marked crosswalks. HB 1027; CH. 327.

Metroped Note: This amendment is was a result of the Safecrossing Campaign

!! PLEASE NOTE !! The above information may contain errors, please directly refer to the latest Code of Virginia Code of Virginia Title 46.2 - MOTOR VEHICLES. Chapter 8 & 9 - Regulation of Traffic 

 

IDAHO TITLE 49 MOTOR VEHICLES CHAPTER 7 PEDESTRIANS AND BICYCLES 

49-720. STOPPING -- TURN AND STOP SIGNALS.

(1) A person operating a bicycle or human-powered vehicle approaching a stop sign shall slow down and, if required for safety, stop before entering the intersection. After slowing to a reasonable speed or stopping, the person shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another highway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time the person is moving across or within the intersection or junction of highways, except that a person after slowing to a reasonable speed and yielding the right-of-way if required, may cautiously make a turn or proceed through the intersection without stopping. 

(2) A person operating a bicycle or human-powered vehicle approaching a steady red traffic control light shall stop before entering the intersection and shall yield to all other traffic. Once the person has yielded, he may proceed through the steady red light with caution. Provided however, that a person after slowing to a reasonable speed and yielding the right-of-way if required, may cautiously make a right-hand turn. A left-hand turn onto a one-way highway may be made on a red light after stopping and yielding to other traffic.

Source: http://www3.state.id.us:80/cgi-bin/newidst?sctid=490070020.K